If you're using a new or uncommon CPU type, or an unreleased version of gcc or glibc, and want some assurance that you have built a working compiler and C library, you should run the gcc and glibc test suites.

The gcc test suite is based on DejaGnu, a test framework written in Tcl and Expect which allows testing of remote systems. DejaGnu works best with remote systems that support remote login via rsh. See dejagnu-remote-howto.html for how one uses Dejagnu with remote targets, and chroot-login-howto.html for how one sets up a chroot jail that allows remote login via rsh.

The glibc testsuite is *not* based on DejaGnu. Instead, it uses Makefiles.

Because it is somewhat difficult to directly invoke the test suites, I've written a shell script '' which attempts to automate the process. (Because I did not want to assume that the target system has Make available, constructs a shell script that runs the tests. This is a bit of a kludge, and the output is not as nice as the gcc test suite output yet.)

See also contrib/testsetup, which contains a couple scripts which I used when doing remote testing of an SH4 system, and, which demonstrates how to repeat just one gcc testcase.

Before you use (or to test the toolchain, you need to do six things:

  1. add an entry in /etc/hosts for each target you want to test. e.g. if you want to test sh4-unknown-linux-gnu, you must have an sh4 system running linux online somewhere, and 'ping sh4-unknown-linux-gnu' must be able to get packets to it. This is not normal dejagnu practice, but it made it much easier to write this doc and the example scripts. (It also restricts you to just one remote target of each type, but if that limitation ever bothers you, you can probably afford to set up your own dejagnu configuration and not use these scripts.)
  2. set up rsh/rlogin/rcp client and server apps on your workstation and on each target system, and make sure they work. (chroot-login-howto.html should be helpful here.) (Note: if you run into a strange "Unable to allocate memory" error when using rcp to retrieve files from an sh4 system, you may need to apply the patch inetutils-1.4.2/sh4-div.patch.)
  3. The rsh / rcp protocol only has 512 IP ports available, so if you launch more than 512 rsh or rcp commands during a 2MSL (120 second) period, the resulting zombie TCP connections hanging around in TIME_WAIT state (you can observe this with netstat -pant) will cause rsh or rcp to fail with error "rcmd: socket: All ports in use".

    To prevent this, issue the following command both locally and on the target (only works on Linux):

    # echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_tw_recycle
    This is completely illegal with respect to the Internet RFCs, but it does prevent the rsh and rcp connections from stacking up in state TIME_WAIT. ( checks to make sure you've done this locally, but doesn't check that you've done it on the target.)
  4. Following the instructions in chroot-login-howto.html, set up and test a chroot jail in /jail for user root-jail on each target system you want to test on, and make sure you can use rsh and rcp into the jail remotely as user root-jail.
  5. Make sure you can re-initialize the chroot jails remotely; see for an example of how to test this.
  6. Run to compile a known good copy of dejagnu.
Once all the above are working, you should be able to run without the --notest argument. For instance, to test a gcc-3.3/glibc-2.2.5 toolchain you already built for sh4-unknown-linux-gnu:
eval `cat sh4.dat` `cat gcc-3.3-glibc-2.2.5.dat`    sh --nounpack --nobuild > x.log 2>&1 &
Keep an eye on the log file; after twenty seconds or so, you should check that dejagnu is able to download and run test apps. Easiest way to check is to use grep to look for passed tests. For example:
$ egrep 'PASS|FAIL|UNRESOLVED' x.log
PASS: gcc.c-torture/execute/20000112-1.c compilation,  -O0 
PASS: gcc.c-torture/execute/20000112-1.c execution,  -O0 
PASS: gcc.c-torture/execute/20000112-1.c compilation,  -O1 
PASS: gcc.c-torture/execute/20000112-1.c execution,  -O1 
If you see lots of FAILed or UNRESOLVED tests, something's wrong, and you'll have to start digging. For instance, make sure there's enough free RAM and disk space on the target system.

The test will take some time to run. When it's done, it will create $TOP_DIR/$TARGET-$TOOLCOMBO-{gcc,binutil}.sum (e.g. sh4-unknown-linux-gnu-gcc-3.3-glibc-2.2.5-gcc.sum) which will tell how many tests failed unexpectedly. Interpreting these results is tricky; see Installing GCC: Testing at the GCC home page, and /or the gcc-testresults mailing list for what kind of results other people are getting.

If you use these scripts to test your toolchain, please send the test results to the crossgcc mailing list and the gcc-testresults mailing list. Be sure to mention which release of the crosstool scripts you used.

Notes on testing

If testing a small (< 64 MB RAM) target with no swap space, you probably want to reboot the target before starting each run.

The glibc tests probably require about 16MB RAM free on the target system (before setting up the jail) and about 16MB of free disk space. On systems with less than 128MB of physical RAM and no swap, you may want to mount /jail via NFS from some Linux box with a bit of free disk space.

I have seen the testcases forget to delete files on the target after trying to run them. (Possibly this is normal in the case of failed tests?) On small targets, you should run in the background before starting the first test to prevent /tmp from filling up.

If your toolchain is missing some crucial patches or is misconfigured, you might not be able to get a chroot jail working. In that case, try linking the gcc regression tests statically, and running them without the jail; edit where it's creating boards/$TARGET.exp, and uncomment the lines that set cflags to -static and username to root. That should get you to a point where you can at least run the gcc and glibc tests and see what's screwing up!

You can rerun an individual gcc test by hand with a command like

$ cd ~/crosstool-0.25/build/powerpc-405-linux-gnu/gcc-3.3-glibc-2.2.5/build-gcc
$ DEJAGNU=~/crosstool-0.25/boards/master.exp PATH=~/crosstool-0.25/result/dejagnu/bin:$PATH RUNTESTFLAGS="--target=powerpc-405-linux-gnu -v -v -v -v -a execute.exp=20000731-1.c" make check-gcc
(Be sure to edit that command to match your paths and target!) That tells runtest to run just testcase gcc/testsuite/gcc.c-torture/execute/20000731-1.c. It may be easier to run runtest directly, rather than through make. The same command above can be run as
$ cd ~/crosstool-0.25/build/powerpc-405-linux-gnu/gcc-3.3-glibc-2.2.5/build-gcc/testsuite
$ DEJAGNU=~/crosstool-0.25/boards/master.exp PATH=~/crosstool-0.25/result/dejagnu/bin:$PATH runtest --tool=gcc --target=powerpc-405-linux-gnu -v -v -v -v -a execute.exp=20000731-1.c
(See also

You can also rerun individual tests by just compiling them by hand, transferring them to the target, and running them. Dejagnu is just a fancy way of doing that automatically.

When running gcc execution tests with whatever glibc is laying about, you may get the error "error in loading shared libraries: undefined symbol: __register_frame_info" To work around this, see register_frame_info_fix.{sh,c} The right fix is probably to use a chroot environment and test with your newly built glibc, as documented above.

The dejagnu in debian is old, and will fail on c-torture's first test (20000112-1.c) unless you copy share/dejagnu/standard.exp to share/dejagnu/baseboards/ That one reason I tell you to compile dejagnu-1.4.3 fresh instead of using the system's copy of dejagnu.

If you're testing on a busybox-0.65 system, sometimes tar -z fails. Using uncompressed tar archives is safer.

Portions copyright 2003, Ixia Communications
Portions copyright 2003, 2004, Google
Released under the GPL.
Last revision 28 March 2003 by